Scientists are constantly searching for the MUTATED GENES which cause
diseases in dogs - these scientists can be employed in Universities,
Research Centres, Private companies, be independent, etc.
discover the 'mutated gene' for which they may use fruit flies, or other
species for this genetic research, they then have to discover a DNA TEST
to detect the mutation, and establish the mode of inheritance.
They also have to protect their work, and
patent it internationally, which may cost £100,000 upwards. They also
require top legal specialists for much of the protection and patenting
The DNA TEST once discovered is valuable,
and will earn the company revenue. The company will decide if the
specific DNA Test is offered under license with other organisations who
may wish to offer the DNA Test to potential customers, or the test is
administered through another organisation in various countries. For
example Utrecht University are currently going though the patenting
phase of their DWARFISM DNA Test.
When it is fully protected by patents
world wide, they will then PUBLISH the test, which can be 'checked' by
other organisations, but the other organisations CANNOT offer the test
to the public without the license from the DISCOVERER who has patented
it. Mary H. Whiteley Ph.D., discovered the JRD DNA Test (and others
before that) and has now patented it and published it. Mary OWNS the JRD
DNA Test, and she owns DOGenes, which she established.
If an organisation in the UK wishes to
offer the JRD DNA Test they can do it in one of two ways. They can agree
a license arrangement with Mary, (royalties) or they can offer it by
agreement with Mary, to the public, and send the 'sample swabs' to
DOGenes for analysis. There is a laboratory in the UK doing the latter
with the DWARFISM DNA TEST and sending all samples to UTRECHT UNIVERSITY
who discovered this particular DNA Test, and the UK laboratory ADDS a
premium to the price of the test. I think you will find it is around £30
more expensive than going direct to Utrecht University. Another
organisation could buy all
a particular DNA Test for a considerable sum of money, if the 'owner'
wished to sell.
It is not unknown for organisations to
attempt to steal tests or related information prior to or during the
patenting process. It is also not unknown for competitors searching for
the same DNA Test, to try and undermine anyone who discovers it before
them, I feel sure this has happened with the JRD DNA Test. Try and find
those negative comments from some renowned organisations who tried to
ridicule the validity of the JRD Test last year, many if not all have
been 'deleted'. ALL discovered DNA tests go through a period of 2+ years
to become patented and published, however it is NOT unusual for the
tests to be offered to the public by the 'organisation who discovered
it' similar to the Dwarfism DNA Test discovered and offered by Utrecht
University, and less than a year since its discovery.
It may surprise people to learn the
commercial value and control of DNA tests, but then people are usually
more shocked to find out that LIFE SAVING surgical procedures which are
developed by surgeons for human operations, are also 'patented' and